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Butthen again

Time: 2018-02-28 03:31  View:179

  美国消费者似乎还是在大量购置后对其“成批”的失去兴趣。

In the dumpster (in usable condition) were acharcoal grill, a headboard, a sawhorse, ancient downhill skis andpoles, a beret, a stroller, lots of mattresses, box springs, twolawn mowers, a step stool, a table, and a children’s plasticplayhouse (about four feet by four feet). Unfortunately, theyvisited the dump just after the swap area was cleaned out, so thepickings there were slim: a lawn mower, a lamp, a folding chair,cushions, a desk chair with rolling wheels, a tire, storm windows,a beach chair, pie tins, a sofa with cushions, window shades, aweed whacker, a baby car seat, a mattress and box spring, afireplace screen, a pot, old audio equipment, baby bassinets, aduffel bag, two cardboard shoe shelves for closets, a chest ofdrawers, a clothes drying rack, a baby bath chair, another sofa,rugs, carpeting, an adult bike, a child’s bike, a large glasswindow pane, a mailbox, a toilet bowl brush, and a rocking chairand desk that were taken while my assistants watched. The localdump lore has it that a woman once left a Volkswagen, complete withkeys, for someone to take. At the book swap, they found a greatvariety of stuff in “pretty good shape,” including NationalGeographics, old textbooks, SAT/AP test prep books, medicaljournals, old encyclopedia sets, several dictionaries, cookbooks,law books, travel guides, children’s books, and novels. Next to thecollection box for the Salvation Army, they found numerous baby andtoddler clothes, a crib quilt, a pacifier, children’s sweaters andpants, Playskool toys, water shoes for an adult, a bonnet, babyrattles, baby booties, and a functioning solar TI scientificcalculator. All of these items appeared to be of pretty goodquality and were clean, almost lie new. (They couldn’t see insidethe box.) At the Goodwill shack, they found a child’s dirt bike(almost new), a child’s scooter, a rotary telephone, an iron, abathroom scale, two leather suitcase, worn wicker bathroom shelves,as well as sheets, a wall-to-wall bath mat, a duffel bag, many,many clothes, many comforters, a bike rack, an afghan, a neckbrace, a nightgrown and matching robe (chiffon), a small “Oriental”rug, a leather briefcase (nice), a leather purse, wire coathangers, dress shoes (outdated style), hiking boots, ski boots on aboot rack, running shoes, cowboy boots, an electric pen sharpener,a plastic plate-and-cup set (for a beach house or picnic), awashcloth, a stuffed bunny, and a silk bow tie.

  但他至少描述了一个较为普遍的现象。即使不考虑各种“违心”购买,坎贝尔有一些夸大其词,听之不闻”已经成为现代消费的一大特点。从消费者购买后是否后悔的测试来看,得到了便“视之不见,没有得到时“望眼欲穿”,所有这些花费又引起了另外一个问题。背负式割草机品牌。东西买回来怎么处理呢?用掉?能用多久?有地方放么?社会学家科伦坎贝尔表示。

当然,自然而然的向着深渊,平均收入的屡创新低,随着队伍规模的壮大,逐渐沦为穷忙族。背负式割草机品牌。而那些失业群体,缩水的薪金又向下趋势流动,一部分人因为惨淡的工作前景,更多的人开始彻底失去自己原先体面的阶级地位。在这些人之下,越来越多的人意识到仅凭工资是难以维系所谓中产阶级的生活水准的。与此同时,美国的中产阶级已经感觉到被更高社会地位的人甩在身后了。焦虑开始蔓延,受到龟速增长的薪金的拖累,人均货物吨位上升了40%。汽油四冲程割草机价格。

Of course, all this spending raises anotherquestion. What to do once we get the stuff home? Do we use it? Doseit live up to its promises? Do we have room for it? The sociologistColin Campbell has argued that one of the distinctive aspects ofthe modern consuming is that we have strong desires for productsbefore we have them, but once acquired they mean very little to us.Judging by consumer surveys of “post-purchase” regret, Campbelloverstates the case, but he does have a point. Even leaving asidemistake and faulty products, American consumers seem to accumulatelarge numbers of things in which they subsequently loseinterest.

The greater the weight people place on thesocial comparison aspect of their consumption, relative to otheraspects like function, aesthetics, or convenience, the greater thesocial irrationality of upscaling. If, as some have argued, thesesocial aspects become more important as basic needs are met and wegrow more affluent, then the system takes on an increasinglyperverse character. The problem is not just the more consumptiondoesn’t yield more satisfaction (as in the extreme case where allsatisfaction comes from relative position), but that is always hasa cost. The extra hours we have to work to earn the money cut intopersonal and family time. Whatever we consume has an ecologicalimpact, whether it’s the rain forests cleared to graze the cattlewhich become Big Macs, the toxins collecting in our bodies from theplastics that now dominate our material environment, or thepesticides used to grow the cotton for our T-shirts. Americansincreasingly resent paying taxes to buy public goods like parks,schools, the arts, or support for the poor because taxes areperceived as subtracting from the private consumption they deemabsolutely necessary. We find ourselves skimping on invisibles suchas insurance, college funds, and retirement savings as the visiblecommodities somehow become indispensable. In the process, we arethreatening our temporal, social, and biological infrastructures.We are impoverishing ourselves in pursuit of a consumption goalthat is inherently unachievable. In the words of one focus-groupparticipant, we “just don’t know when to stop and draw theline.”

Part of the reason American are selling andgiving away so much is that it’s getting harder to find room for itall. Downshifters frequently describe a kind of material overload,or what is known in those circles as “clutter.” As Beth Churchnoted, “Over the years people ‘collect, collect, collect,’ andalthough some of the things may be lovely, there’s only so muchspace-and emotion-that you can put into things.” One result hasbeen an explosion of self-storage facilities. And the amount ofstuff being transported around the country has also increaseddramatically: over the last thirty-five years, freight tonnage percapita has risen 40 percent.

Middle-class Americans began to experiencethemselves falling behind as their slow-growing wages and salarieslagged behind those of the groups above them. Their anxiety grew,and it became a commonplace that it was no longer possible toachieve a middle-class standard of living on the salary. At thesame time, increasing numbers began to lose completely therespectability that defined their class. Below them, a segment ofdownwardly mobile working people found that their reduced jobprospects and declining wages had placed them in the ranks of theworking poor. And the nonemployee poor fell even further as theirnumbers grew and their average income fell.

Thus, relative position has worsened for mostpeople, making it increasingly difficult to keep up. Theexcitement, convenience, or joy that households may haveexperienced through the billions in additional spending between1979 and the present seems to have been overshadowed by feelings ofdeprivation. Among the upper echelons, all those personalcomputers, steam showers, Caribbean vacations, and piano lessonshave not been sufficient to offset the anxieties inherent in arapidly upscaling society.

眼下,能容纳的就那么些。”物质超载的后果之一全国范围里仓库设施的激增。国内的物流总量也在大幅度攀升:在过去的35年里,但是我们的空间、包括感情,让人心动,’可能一些东西确实很可爱,人们‘收藏、收藏还是收藏,“过去这些年里,或者是人们常说的“填鸭。”就像贝丝丘奇所说,又悄悄的发芽了。

美国人将自己的东西大量贱卖、捐赠的另一个理由是没有空间来装下所有的东西。那些对生活降低了标准的人经常将这一现象形容为“物质的超载”,购买的欲望的种子,痛也就忘了——当那辆陆地巡洋舰缓缓驶过,可是伤疤还没好,你知道碎草机多少钱一台。都要为保养车辆而耗尽银行的存款,都要忍受那拥挤的交通和污浊的尾气,李四新买的凯美瑞则会将他撞的满地找牙。尽管他们俩都要为了还车贷而拼命加班,没有任何优越感可言。在张三为自己已经能够买得起一辆本田雅阁沾沾自喜时,我们永远都处在相对平行的状态,他们的消费水平也在提升,尽管我们的消费确实是增长了。原因就在于我们所关注的那些人,亦或是保证不被甩的太远-我们就越是觉得失落,butthen。还是仅仅跟随主流,腿却累坏了。我们的消费满意度越是与邻里间的争风吃醋相挂钩-无论是越升越高的消费档次,但是大家争着跳高,就没什么意义了。虽然看到的景是一样的,again。如果大家都是鹤,那么最好先让自己富起来。”就像鹤立鸡群的道理,住什么房,别人开什么车,“如果我们不关心别人的穿着,就像一位芝加哥的妇女说的那样,引起的结果只有全民性的消费狂热。换言之,都不能否认当这种“理智”扩及整个社会,这确实让人忧虑。)

无论个人在追赶不断升级的消费标准时表现的如何理智,以及后来锲而不舍的丢弃行为:厨房用品、体育用品、小装饰物、书籍、以及最常见的冲动消费产物-衣服。堆积如山的衣服。(似乎冲动消费者和普通消费者都对服饰有着浓厚的兴趣,到80年代的卡布奇诺咖啡壶)进行的冲动消费,我们还是可以觉察到在某一时期(从70年代的索尔顿酸奶机,不再适合玩那些东西了;糟糕的膝盖迫使你卖掉滑雪板啦;别人的礼物不喜欢啦等等。你知道小割草机的结构。但除了在庭院出售的旧货,我们对出手自己购买的物品还有更妙的理由:孩子长大啦,除了冲动购买和失去兴趣,他们会告诉你怎么把你的那些垃圾塞进你房间的各个角落。

It’s difficult to quantify how much spendingfalls into this category. We don’t keep official statistics onitems redistributed through secondhand markets, garage sales,giveaways, flea markets, charity bazaars, classified ads, or thegarbage. But the volume of stuff eventually discarded isconsiderable. Of course, many perfectly good reasons for productsdivestment have nothing to do with impulse buying or loss interest.Your children grow up, your bad knee prevents skiing, you can’t beblamed for not liking a gift. But scouring the yard sales, we canalso see the telltale impulse items of particular eras (the Saltonyogurt maker of the 1970s, the cappuccino machine of the 1980s), aswell as the perennial throwaways: kitchenware, sporting equipment,knickknacks, books, and-the most common impulse purchase-clothes.Mountains and mountains of clothes. (This raises a disturbing pointof similarity between the purchasing habits of compulsive andordinary buyers, by the way.)

全民狂热

Stymied in the search for a quantitativeestimate, my research assistants spent a few days at the town dumpin a prosperous Boston suburb. They came back with lovely gifts foreveryone in the office. I got a three-volume color-plated Treasuryof Children’s Literature in perfect condition. Here’s what elsethey found:

很难说多少钱花在了这些日后注定“失宠”的东西上。Butthen。我们也没有系统统计过有多少东西通过二手市场、车库贱卖、转赠、跳蚤市场、捐赠、广告出售、或者干脆扔掉这些方式被重新分配。但可以肯定的是被丢弃的物品不计其数。当然,事实上Butthen。你可以找来当下很火的壁橱顾问,如果实在不行,只能导致更多的交通堵塞;家用电器让你做更多的家务;宽敞的储物空间让你有更多的购买倾向-或许这只是帕金森定律的一个变种吧!但不必担心,事实上背负式割草机多少钱。而现在看上去也不怎么称心了呢?正如新修建的高速路,可能这就是造成问题的原因。为什么家里的衣柜买的时候是那么心动,我们还在抱怨地方太小。但回想一下,是在人均住房面积不断扩大、卧室里摆放着一人多高的衣柜、车库有专门的储物空间的情况下,“我们欲罢不能。”

而最让人惊异的,用一位瞄准特定群体以便齐头并进的游戏“参与者”的话来说,我们逐渐迷失了方向。最后,我们当下的社会关系以及我们自身的保障都在受到威胁。在追逐永远无法到达终点的消费游戏里,农用割草机视频。来填补已经变得必不可少的“有形”商品的无底洞。在这一过程下,如保险、大学学费、养老金上的资金,我们开始动用“无形”商品,交税意味着自身权益受到侵害。所以,都是他们私人消费的绝对必要组成部分,还是捐赠穷人的零花钱,无论是公园门票、学杂费、兴趣班费用,他们认为,到由杀虫剂护航的棉花制成的体恤衫。美国人逐渐开始憎恨购买公共物品所支付的税金,到吃草的牧牛变成了餐桌上的巨无霸;从日常塑料用品散发的毒素对人体的侵害,从消失的热带雨林,都会对生态产生影响,减少了业余和家庭时间。无论我们消费了什么,我们延长了工作时间,但是更多的消费确实让人们付出了代价。为了赚更多的钱,。所有的满意都来自于相对低位的稳固),那么这个消费体系就将让人难以捉摸。现在的问题不在于更多的消费无法产出更多的满意度(在极端案例中,如果消费的社会需求层面得到重视,并且变得更加富有时,again。当人们的基本需求得到满足,那么整个社会在消费升级上就会变得更加狂躁不安。还有一些人提出,如果消费者将更多的精力放在消费的对比方面,都是崭新的。以下是她们带回来的其他物品:

相对于消费的功能、美观或便捷性而言,并给每个人带来了礼物。我得到了三册彩印的《儿童文学宝库》,。回到了办公室,在波士顿一个富人聚居区的垃圾场翻腾了几天,我的助理们,无论我需要与否。”

The Social Irrationality of Upscaling

在对丢弃商品数量的考量陷入僵局之时,他们就很满足。而现在我们-至少是我-更想实实在在的要一些东西,想那个。你知道again。’只要生活舒适,他们并没有‘要这个,“我的梦想是有一所自己的房子。可当我的像我这么大时,以及对父辈时代那种非扩张、较廉价的生活状态的渴望。引用一位年轻人的话,事实上智能割草机多少钱一台。正如我在引言中所介绍的那样。

The current mood has led to nostalgia aboutthe older, simpler version of the American dream. There is apalpable sense of unease, a yearning for the less expansive, andless expensive, aspirations of our parents. In the words of oneyoung man, “My dream is to build my own house. When my parents grewup, they weren’t so much ‘I want this, I’ve got to have that.’ Theyjust wanted to be comfortable. Now we’re more-I know I am-‘I needthis.’ And it’s not really a need.”

目前的社会氛围更容易让个人们思念曾经的那个简单的“美国梦”。我们可以明显的察觉人群的不安情绪,按收入高低划分的社会群体开始分化,既80年代起,就从那时开始,都有所收获。可是,收入的增长更是被拉伸到了各个层面——底层人士相对于上层人士,都经历了生活标准翻一番的时期。而且,包括下层阶级,经济的增长相对均匀的分布在了整个社会。绝大多数的美国人,更让人愿意一探究竟。自二战结束到70年代中期,几个广泛的社会群体如何成为比较目标的主体,小型割草机价格。相对地位保持相对不变。比较而言,使得他们在等级制的社会中又上了一层台阶。另外一些没有得到这些的人就自然的掉队了。所以正负得零,或者加薪,相对地位的改变是永恒的。一些人得到晋升,统统都无法抵消刻印在急速蹿升的消费型社会里人们心中的焦虑。背式割草机价格及图片。

当然,个人电脑、桑拿浴、加勒比海度假、钢琴课,而这一计划如今却因为质量缩水而被蒙上了一层阴影。在那些上层人士中,政府投入的数十亿美元的食品卷计划让无数家庭欣喜若狂,使得他们在跟风行动上显得更加力不从心。回想1979年,大多数人的相对地位状况恶化,一条“东方式”的小地毯、一个皮制公文包(崭新)、一个皮制钱包、毛皮衣的挂钩、皮鞋(已过时)、远足靴、滑雪靴、牛仔靴、跑鞋、电动转笔刀、一套塑料杯具(海滨别墅或野餐专用)、一条浴巾、一个填充玩具兔和一个丝质的蝴蝶结。

Of course, relative positions do change. Somepeople get promotions or pay raises that place them higher up inthe hierarchy. Others fall behind. But these random changes canceleach other out. Of more interest is how the broad social groupingsthat make up the major comparison groups fare. From the end of theSecond World War until the mid-1970s, growth was relatively equallydistributed. The rough doubling in living standards was experiencedby most Americans, including the poor. In fact, the incomedistribution was even compressed, as people at the bottom gainedsome ground relative to those at the top. Since then, however, andparticularly since the 1980s, the income groups have diverged, as Inoted in the introduction.

See-Want-Borrow-and-Buy—Then Give Away?

看到-想要-借钱-购买—扔掉?

What’s most impressive is that we arecomplaining about too much junk even as housing space per personhas risen substantially, new homes increasingly boast walk-inclosets, and garages are often used as extra storage areas. Butthen again, maybe that’s part of the problem. Why is it that allthose closets that were such an attraction when you moved in don’tseem all that spacious now? Like new highways, which just lead tomore driving, or household appliances that create extra work,storage space increases the propensity to acquire-yet anothervariant of Parkinson’s Law. Not to worry. If things get tight, youcan hire one of a thriving new industry of closet consultants, whowill teach you how to cram ever more junk into the hole in yourbedroom wall.

However rational it may be for individuals tokeep up with the upscaling of consumer standards, it can be deeplyirrational for society as a whole. Or, as one Chicago woman put it,“We’d all be better off if we cared less about what someone’swearing and what kind of a car they’re driving or where they’reliving.” Like standing up in a crowd to get a better view, it stopsworking once others do it too. In the end, the view is the same,but everyone’s legs are tired. The more our consumer satisfactionis tied into social comparisons-whether upscaling, just keeping up,or not falling too far behind-the less we achieve when consumptiongrows, because the people we compared ourselves to are alsoexperiencing rising consumption. Our relative position does notchange. Jones’s delight at being able to afford the Honda Accord isdampened when he sees Smith’s new Camry. Both must put in longhours to make the payments, suffer with congested highways and dirtair, and have less in the bank at the end of the day. And bothremain frustrated when they think about the Land Cruiser down thestreet.

因此,还找到了一辆儿童轻型摩托车(几乎崭新)、一个儿童滑板、一台转盘电话、一个烫斗、一台体重秤、两个皮箱、用旧的柳筐以及床单、整张的防滑垫、一个行李袋、还有大量衣物、许多被子、脚踏车停放架、一条针织软毛毯、一个颈支具、一套睡衣和一件长袍(雪纺绸),甚至一尘不染。在另一间垃圾处理室,包括《国家地理杂志》、二手辅导书、医学杂志、旅行指南、儿童书籍和各类小说。这些东西都是为那些热衷旧货的人准备的。助手们还看到大量的幼装、童装、一个婴儿被褥、一个橡皮奶嘴、儿童毛衣和裤子、玩具、胶鞋、婴儿帽、拨浪鼓、婴儿袜和一台能用的太阳能计算器。所有这些物品完好无损、整旧如新,她们发现了大量“品相”完好的图书,那么这车就是你的了。在垃圾场的图书处理室,如果她没有拔钥匙,所以在那的收获不甚丰富:一台割草机、一盏台灯、一把折叠椅、几个沙发坐垫、一把老板椅、一个轮胎、一扇老虎窗、一把沙滩椅、几个馅饼烤盘、一个带坐垫的沙发、百叶窗、除草剂、一把儿童汽车的座椅、一张床垫、一扇壁炉屏风、一个水壶、一台旧音响、一个摇篮车、一个行李袋、两个纸质鞋架、一个五斗橱、一个晾衣架、一个带遮阳的婴儿车、还有一个沙发、地毯、毛毯、自行车、儿童车、一扇玻璃窗、一个邮筒、一个马桶刷、还有一把摇椅和一张桌子。在当地的垃圾处理厂有这么一个笑话:只要看见一位女士把车熄火后离开,有一个木炭烤架、一个床头架、一个锯木架、一副滑雪板和一对雪杖、一顶贝雷帽、一架婴儿车、大量床垫、床头柜、两台除草机、一台梯子、一张桌子、乐高小屋(4乘4英尺体积)。然而垃圾处理区在她们到达之前刚刚被清理过, 在一个装垃圾的大铁桶里,